for industry professionals: This is written to help people outside our industry
that are thinking of commissioning a video. It is not a comprehensive list,
simply a guideline which we hope to regularly update.
It's divided into the elements of pre production, production itself, post
production and distribution and delivery. Following that are a list of other
definitions that may be helpful.
(Gathering together the elements for the shoot)
Written text for actors, presenters and voice overs. Almost essential to
have a script in place before production begins which we can be shot and
A still representation of how the text and images will blend together.
A basic idea of what you want to say / show and how you want to say / show
it. A good rule of thumb is to have a sliding scale of information on one
side and creativity on the other. For example a sales presentation may have
faster edit points with drum and bass music bed, a CRM video perhaps needs
something a little less pacy?
The treatment may lead to a 'storyboard' being produced and a script developed.
The elements of the shoot itself. Generally the crew consists of camera,
lighting and sound department, a director and possibly their assistants.
This crew could simply be two people or twenty or more depending on the
size of the shoot.
device for displaying large, readable text on a partially transparent
screen for video production. The autocue uses a monitor mounted under
the camera lens, facing up, and a mirrored glass which reflects the monitor's
image toward the artist.
cues (and their operators) are expensive and a scrolling text on a laptop
is often a more cost effective alternative.
ratio between the height and width of the TV picture on the screen. The
aspect ratio for a standard TV or monitor is 4 to 3 (4:3). The usual alternative
is 16 to 9 (16:9).
Loads of different types of course. These range from 'amateur' camcorders
to 'professional' digi betas. However the vast majority of video we produce
is shot on mini DV or DV cam. Mini DV is very small (i.e. discrete enough
for a workshop) and also highly portable (we can get them on scooters).
DV CAM is slightly higher quality, especially in low lighting conditions
for example a fashion show.
bear in mind: if the footage is going to be compressed at all, there's
simply no need to incur the exorbitant cost of for example a digi beta
camera and crew.
process of overlaying one video signal over another by replacing a range
of colours with the second signal. Typically, the first (foreground) picture
is photographed with a person or object against a special, single-colour
background (the key-colour usually green or blue). The second picture
is inserted in place of the key-colour. The most common example is in
broadcast weather segments where pictures of weather maps are inserted
"behind" the artistes
The degree to which the various luminance values in a picture are mapped
to very dark and very light values. A high-contrast picture is dominated
by black and white and few values between. A low contrast picture has
a lot of middle tones without many very dark or very light areas.
CUE LIGHT (TALLY LIGHT in the US)
signal lamp or LED installed on a video camera which informs performers
and crew members that the camera is currently live.
A display that gets its signal directly from the camera on the shoot.
A monitor allows everyone involved to see what's being filmed.
The number of times a scene is shot is called a 'take'. Some are better
than others and should be noted on the day to ensure editing can progress
as quickly as possible.
During a series of shoot days which have exterior and interior shots,
it's always an idea to shoot the exteriors when you can and keep the interiors
as 'weather cover'. That way the unit can work around the weather and
ensure best use of time is employed.
"other half" of any 'video production' and very often the most
difficult (both technically and practically) aspect of a shoot.
sorts of different types for different occasions. A few are listed below:
on top of the camera. Long, uni - directional microphone designed to pick
up sounds directly in front of the microphone, rejecting sound from other
transmitter and receiver. The transmitter 'lives' on the artist usually
via a tie clip. The receiver 'lives' with the unit.
used at workshops or seminars, pancake mics 'live' on table tops and are
omni-directional, picking up any sounds that are on the table (including
delegates fiddling with pens, and noisy OHP's).
there is more than one 'feed' the audio channels need to be mixed. A sound
man 'rides' the faders on the mixer to ensure sound is being received
from the right area.
a shotgun microphone on a telescopic pole. This has a 'softie' put on
the end to eliminate wind resistance.
PA (Personal Address System)
System of speakers and microphones which allow a speaker to be heard in
THREE POINT LIGHTING
Basic use of three standard lights to light a small set.
The term used to describe a subject's main source of illumination. When
shooting outdoors, the key light is the sun.
which sits on top of the camera and illuminates e.g. a presenter to camera.
(After the shoot all the elements have to be combined in the edit.)
audio equivalent of the video dissolve where one sound track is gradually
faded out while a second sound track simultaneously replaces the original
procedure for combining selected portions of video footage in order to
create a new, combined version. A variety of editing consoles are available.
During video editing, special effects such as wipes, dissolves, inserts,
etc. can be added.
to video editing. Various portions of audio material are combined and
recorded onto the videotape in one continuous form. For example, when
a sound track is added to a videotape, various sounds such as background
music, sound effects and voice narration, may be introduced in order to
highlight particular movie scenes.
location in a video where a production event occurs. (e.g. dissolve or
wipe from one scene to another)
(Edit Decision List)
list of a video production's edit points. This is either decided upon
in situ while editing or clients can look at master footage in their own
time on VHS and arrive knowing the edit points through doing a 'paper
edit' i.e. sitting down with a piece of paper and writing their desired
in and out points.
act of dissolving a video picture to either a colour, pattern or titles.
Fading a video image is often used as an artistic tool in video productions,
most commonly seen as a fade to black.
In audio, there is a decrease in the sound level until it is no longer
audible. Audio fading is often used in conjunction with video fading causing
the sound and image to fade simultaneously.
a video is completed for one purpose, it's relatively simple to 'top and
tail' it for another purpose. For example if a date or logo changes, or
if a re-edit is required for a third party. 'Debrief videos' can be topped
and tailed for use as an invitation to the same event the following year.
digital code number recorded onto a videotape for editing purposes. When
decoded, the time code identifies every frame of a videotape using digits
reading hours:minutes:seconds and frames.
addition of text, symbols and graphic elements to a video image. Sophisticated
titling devices allow the user to prepare text and graphics in various
sizes, fonts and colours to be triggered later, one-by-one, at appropriate
places within a production. Great for reinforcing a message.
Artistic effects added to a video production in order to enhance the production
by creating drama, enhancing the mood or furthering the story. AFTERFX
is perhaps the best known SFX programme, but generally our advice is 'less
is more' when it comes to producing a corporate video.
electronic process which allows the viewing of two video images, side
by side or above and below, on-screen simultaneously. Currently a recurring
theme used by directors who've evidently seen '24'.
place in front of video, e.g., placing text over a video signal.
video equivalent of the audio dissolve where one video track is gradually
faded out while a second sound track simultaneously replaces the original
Distribution and Delivery
(Getting the footage to your audience).
Yawn, yes VHS is still used but the quality is poor and it's not interactive.
That said, widespread use, familiarity, and the fact it's generally played
through a TV means the viewer will almost certainly be able to see it.
Storage capacity 600-800 meg. CD's are an ideal international distribution
method for video as most people have CD Rom drives as standard in their
PC's. 'Authoring' basic CD ROMs is fairly straightforward using a programme
called Director 8, and should not require plug in's to view.
Storage capacity ? Although it's more complicated to author on DVD, because
of their high video quality DVD's are increasingly preferred to CD ROM.
Combined with a plasma screen, DVD is ideal for point of sale terminals
or exhibitions and are becoming cheap enough to distribute in general.
Once a video is produced it can be compressed to 'live' on a company intranet.
The advantage of this is: no duplication costs and staff can see it (e.g.
the company AGM) when they want to.
The applications for e learning and development are all too apparent.
Though video can be inserted into PowerPoint with a click of a button
how many people are using it? We feel this will be a huge growth area
in the years to come.
is a digital compression standard for video images which allows the images
to occupy less memory or disk space. When compressing it includes options
for trading off between storage space and image quality, this needs to
be considered when deciding which format you want to provide the video.
fact that 45 seconds video can now be reduced to around 2 meg gave birth
to 'viral mpegs'. These have been used successfully to raise awareness
of products or policies as people -hopefully- forward them as e mail attachments
to one another.
have also been asked to produce 45 second Mpegs as a snapshot 'debrief
video' which can be quickly e mailed to clients. Why clients (such as
restaurants) don't ask us to use them as invites e.g. for Xmas bookings
is still a mystery to us. (Details on request).
There are three media players in general use. Real Player, Windows Media
Player and QuickTime. Real and Windows are in widespread general use,
QuickTime is favoured more by users of Apple Macs.
STREAMING VS DOWNLOADABLE VIDEO
The video is streamed from the website. It does not remain on the users
hard drive ideal if you want to protect copyright. As it's name suggests
downloadable video is downloaded from the website and remains on the users
hard rive. Ideal for a video press release.
All sorts of incentives can be used to encourage people to visit sites
with video, and the best bit of all is there's no media space to buy and
no-one to stop clients with regard to content (within reason).
The speed at which digital information is transferred from one device
to another, and can range from a few kilobits to many hundreds of megabytes
per second. Traditional modems, for example, offer lousy download data
rates of around 56Kbps, ADSL however means video can be seen at around
300-500 kps. 1 meg connections are now being distributed.
device which splits (distributes) one audio and/or video source to several
audio/video device inputs. Typically, distribution amplifiers are used
at point of sale or at exhibitions where one video can then run simultaneously
on five plasma screens throughout a store.
duplicate copy made from one recording medium to another. (As opposed
to a 'dupe' which is one format duplicated to the same format). Don't
get this one wrong, it's embarrassing.
number of duplication steps between an original recording and a given
copy. A second generation duplicate is a copy of the original master and
a third generation duplicate is a copy of a copy of the original master,
(National Television Standards Committee)
of colour TV broadcasting used mainly in the United States,
(Phase Alternate Line)
European colour TV broadcasting standard.
display device which projects a video or computer image onto a large screen.
The classic video projector has three primary colour video tubes which
converge on-screen to create the full colour image. Single tube projectors
eliminate convergence problems but compared to three tube systems, project
a relatively lower quality image.
A large array of several monitors, placed close to one another in the
shape of a video screen or "wall." Each monitor is fed only
part of the original video image by using a video-wall generating unit.
When viewed from a distance, the effect can be very dramatic. Ideal for
point of sale display.
process of electronically compressing a video picture to make it use less
storage (e.g. CD ROM) or to allow video to be streamed
factors have to be taken into account when deciding how to compress video
footage. The quality of the picture, the size of the picture frame, and
the speed of the person who is accessing the footage.
Miscellaneous other terms
contact www.shootyou.co.uk if
you have any suggestions for what might be added to this list:
footage acquired for miscellaneous needs. Increasingly used by PR companies
to get their clients message across e.g. by providing news organisations
with 'sexy' footage so they don't have to shoot it themselves. Good B-
roll gets their client's message higher up the editorial ladder.
Video generally used in PR and field marketing to debrief clients as to
how an event went. These include press cuttings, photos from the shoot,
vox pops interviews with relevant people and footage of TV coverage.
ELECTRONIC PRESS KIT
means by which video can be used on a variety of formats to present to